Saliva is critical for maintenance of oral homeostasis, which is why saliva has been widely focused upon within various aspects of research. During past decades, much attention has been paid to screening of saliva for the content of potential biomarkers to identify and monitor the presence of various diseases. As compared to blood and dental plaque sampling, saliva is highly suitable for biomarker analysis, because saliva can be easily and non-invasively collected.
Moreover, the tremendous technological development in molecular biological methods that can be applied to saliva samples containing human cells, bacteria, DNA, RNA and proteins, may lead to new ways to reveal presence of oral and medical diseases. This development has fuelled a comprehensive research activity on biomarkers for identification of oral diseases such as periodontitis, dental caries and oral cancer, but also medical diseases including Sjogren’s syndrome.